module syllabus for environmental studies for undergraduate courses of all branches of . Ltd. Bikaner. b). Bharucha Erach, The Biodiversity of India, Mapin Publishing Pvt. Ltd., Textbook Design – Narendra Kulkarni (Mudra), Sushma Durve. Textbook of Environment Studies for Undergraduate Courses - Erach Bharucha. pdf - Ebook download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read book online. Textbook environmental studies erach bharucha pdf. 22 37 34 -. AC- C WINDOWS system32 igfxsrvc. 15 01 d- c program files.
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Envinromental chortsofalecdurl.ga - Ebook download as PDF File .pdf), Text File. Environmental Studies For Undergraduate Courses Erach. Com here we are with Environmental Studies by ERACH. BHARUCHA Pdf for to improve your exam preparation. It does not matter how slowly. Erach Bharucha. · Rating details · 29 please sign up. Be the first to ask a question about Textbook Of Environmental Studies For Undergraduate Courses.
Teachers, too, will find this book easy to teach and very helpful. The book attempts to clarify all the important concepts in Arts, Science, Engineering and Commerce pertaining to the environment. The Unit 8 of this book focuses only on fieldwork that can be undertaken by the student. The flowcharts in this book have been well-designed and help in clearing up the concepts even further.
The main theme of the book is to show restrain when it comes to living things and it goes a step forwards by suggesting solution to problems faced on a day to day basis. Every chapter has questions at the end which the student can attempt to test his learning levels with.
You all must have this kind of questions in your mind. Below article will solve this puzzle of yours. Just take a look. He has been engaged in implementing a variety of environmental education programmes for schools and colleges and for the public at large. Visitor Kindly Note: EasyEngineering team try to Helping the students and others who cannot afford downloading books is our aim. Thank you. Kindly Note: If you face above Download Link error try this Link.
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Join With us. The Multidisciplinary Nature of Environmental Studies. This course on the environment is unlike any other. It is not only a collection of facts or information about the environment. It is about the way we all should live. It is expected to give you information about the environment that will lead to a concern for your own environment. When you develop this concern, you will begin to act at your own level to protect the environment we all live in.
This is the objective of the course and the syllabus is a framework on which we must all realign our lives. This textbook deals with major environmental concerns that have been identified as important areas where background information is essential for a better understanding of our environment.
It stresses on a balanced view of issues that affect our daily lives. Unlike most other textbooks, it not only makes the reader better informed on these concerns, but is expected to lead him or her towards positive action to improve the environment.
There are three reasons for studying the state of the environment. Firstly is the need for information that clarifies modern environmental concepts such as the need to conserve biodiversity, the need to lead more sustainable lifestyles and the need to use resources more equitably. Secondly, there is a need to change the way in which we view our own environment by a practical approach based on observation and self learning.
Thirdly there is the need to create a concern for our environment that will trigger pro-environmental action, including activities we can do in our daily life to protect it. Environmental studies deals with every issue that affects an organism. It is essentially a multidisciplinary approach that brings about an appreciation of our natural world and human impacts on its integrity. This has led to many cultural prac- and philosophy.
Respect for nature and all living creatures is not new to In- 1. All our traditions are based on these values. Most of us live in landscapes that have eties began to believe that easy answers to the been heavily modified by human beings, in vil- question of producing more resources could be lages, towns or cities. But even those of us who provided by means of technological innovations. Thus developing industry, led to rapid economic our daily lives are linked with our surroundings growth, the ill effects of this type of develop- and inevitably affects them.
We use water to ment, led to environmental degradation. We breathe air, we use resources from which food The industrial development and intensive agri- is made and we depend on the community of culture that provides the goods for our increas- living plants and animals which form a web of ingly consumer oriented society uses up large life, of which we are also a part.
Everything amounts of natural resources such as water, around us forms our environment and our lives minerals, petroleum products, wood, etc.
Non- depend on keeping its vital systems as intact as renewable resources, such as minerals and oil possible. Renew- cannot continue to live without protecting the. The Multidisciplinary Nature of Environmental Studies 3. And loss of forest cover not only depletes the forest of its resources. Trace its components jour. How many of these compo- nents are renewable resources and how Activity 2: Try to answer the questions above for one Understanding and making ourselves more of the components in the article you chose aware of our environmental assets and prob.
Deforestation leads population increase. Then answer the following lems is not enough. If we use it rapidly. Unsustainable utilization can natural forest acts like a sponge which holds result from overuse of resources. On the other hand. Our natural resources can be compared with money in a bank. Most of us indulge in wasteful behaviour pat- terns without ever thinking about their environ- Such multiple effects on the environment re.
Activity 1: For example. But these too will be depleted if we con- tinue to use them faster than nature can re- place them. For us with the resources we need in the long-term. To understand all of us begins to take actions in our daily lives the different aspects of our environment we that will help preserve our environmental re- need to understand biology. It is an inte- gration of several subjects that include both Improving this situation will only happen if each Science and Social Studies.
As we keep increas- ing in numbers and the quantity of resources The Multidisciplinary Nature of Environmental Studies 5 Chapter1. Once we begin to ask these questions of our- selves. Air pollution leads to respi- than many others who have less access ratory diseases. We live in a world in which natural resources are limited. These accumulate in our environ- ment.
We cannot expect Governments alone geography. Added to this is misuse of resources. It is a responsibility that each of us must take on as ones own. Thus the scope of envi- nor can we expect other people to prevent ronmental studies is extremely wide and covers environmental damage. Without them.
The earth cannot be expected to sustain this expanding level of utilization of resources. We need to do it our- some aspects of nearly every major discipline. What can you do to prevent waste. How much do you really need to use. Activity 3: Plastic bags. Example — Water: Do you feel you should change the way you use How can you reduce the amount of plastic you water? How can you change this so that it is use?
What effects does plastic have on our environ- ment? Example — Food: How is it grown? What made? How does it reach you? What effect does it have on the air we breathe? Exercises in self learning about form. List these activities and identify the main resources used during these ac. Then estimate the damage you are likely to do in your life.
How could you reduce When we leave a motorbike or car running dur- their use? Only if each of us contributes our part in con- Attempt to assess the level of damage to serving fossil based energy can we make it last the environment due to your actions that longer on earth.
Think about all the articles you use daily that Where did the water come from? What is its are made from plastic. Can you reduce your throw away. Example — Fossil fuels: Where will the waste water go? Make a list of the plastic articles you usually use. Plastic plays an impor.
How has it reached you? Once all the fossil fuels are burnt off. When we permit the de. This is created by developing National Parks and Wildlife Sanctuaries in relatively undisturbed Productive value of nature: As scientists make areas. How is it cooked? It is these their habitat these species will become extinct. It brings about an understanding of cies contain an incredible and uncountable num.
There is a close link be- waste? How can you prevent it from being tween agriculture and the forest. How is the waste dis. How much do you use everyday? Where does it come from? The How do you waste it? How can you conserve aesthetic and recreational values that nature energy? The flowering of the living and non-living part of our earth.
Once they are lost. Example — Paper: Thus the urgent need to protect all living spe- cies is a concept that we need to understand What is it made from? While individually. One can appreciate the magnificence of a moun- rich groups of living organisms are thus vital for tain.
These are the raw entirely dependent upon the intricate function- materials that are used for developing new ing of ecosystems. If we degrade est. It has also do not inform the authorities. Their life cycles however frequently require intact forests. For crops to be successful. These areas can be sustainably and preserve its goods and services developed to mimic natural ecosystems even for the future. We often feel that managing all this is something that the Government should do.
The op- ness areas with interpretation facilities at dis. This has been described as nature grassland.
But if we go on endan- gering our environment. The option values of nature: While we utilise vironment and the need for sustainable lifestyles. We can use up goods and services greedily In the absence of access to a Protected Area. This pect of adventure tourism. They can 1. It provides not only an aesthetic that we do in our and visual appeal but the ability to ensure that daily lives has an each individual is able to access a certain amount adverse impact of peace and tranquility.
Thus urban environ. A wilderness experience has exceptional recre. Thus if we use up all our resources. They are also key tools in educating people about the fragility of the en. This is its option value. Our present generation great value in sensitizing school students to wild. These recreational would bring home to the visitor the importance facilities not only provide a pleasurable experi. Such nature trails are invaluable assets for creating conservation education and awareness.
These have got for future generations. Many young people who frequented zoos unsustainable patterns of life. We are living on spaceship earth with a limited supply of resources.
There have been several Government and Non- sible for spreading this message to as many government organizations that have led to en- people as possible. BNHS Hornbill. Mass media such as newspa. Wildlife Week. It is the prevention of paper.
This can only be made possible through mass public awareness. Just as for any disease. Politicians in a democracy always home. They have led to a growing interest in environmental pro- Suggested further activities for concerned stu. Individually we can play a major mentally friendly products. There are also several envi. WWF-I tection and conservation.
Thus if you join an NGO that sup- ports conservation. Each of us is respon. Sanctuary maga. To prevent ill-effects on our envi. The CSE also publishes a popu. It runs sev. The early years focused attention on wildlife education and awareness. It implements a large outreach programme New Delhi: Activities of this Center include that has covered over schools in which it organising campaigns. The BNHS environmental awareness and creates an inter- publishes a popular magazine called Hornbill and est in conservation among the general public.
Masters and Bachelors program in Environmen- tal Sciences. The WWF-I was initiated in in program has trained many environment educa- Mumbai after which the headquarters were tors. This is part of the Bharati Vidyapeeth think tank and lobby force for environment and Deemed University.
Ahmedabad was initiated in Natural History. Salim Ali number of publications. It is involved major research organisation that substantially in the publication of material in the form of influenced conservation policy in the country. It con- NGO and one that has acted at the forefront of ducts a variety of programs to spread the battle for species and ecosystems.
The Institute has a PhD. Its of Indian Reptiles. It has a wide range of programs on the environment and produces a variety of educational material. Biodiversity Con- publications. It also an internationally well-known Journal on focussed attention on NGOs. Undoubtedly its major contri- bution has been in the field of wildlife research. Its other publications include the youth and children to generally promote con- Salim Ali Handbook on birds. Pune and Dehra Dun. Assessment EIA cell. The BSI currently has nine regional centres.
It has trained a large number of Forest Depart- Kalpavriksh. It is made to reorganise the BSI and formulate its involved with the preparation of site-specific. Initially conceived as for its undergraduate course on environment. This insti- tion from primary school level to the postgradu. The main targets are linked with sustain. Its activities in- clude talks and audio-visuals in schools and colleges. The Botani- organising student participation in ongoing cam.
By the BSI had its headquar- environmental manuals for schoolteachers. Its environment edu. It trains personnel in investigation and research.
He wished to sup- aids. Itanagar and Gangtok. How- ing for consumer awareness regarding organic ever it closed down for several years after food. It carries out surveys of plant resources in different regions. The organisation cation program covers about schools. Its most gram. Rodgers and Panwar. Port Blair. This NGO. Program has trained excellent wildlife in several other parts of India. It also has an Environment Impact on a variety of fronts: Its major program is organising This Institution was established in Kalpavriksh works scientists.
It has over management. He designed the early established in John Muir. Ralph Emerson. It currently operates from 16 regional disturbances in natural ecosystems that are lead- centers. Aldo Leopald was a forest official servation action initiated by the Government.
Salim Henry Thoreau. He also wrote several great books different perspective. In the s he formed the mental Treaties and Accords during her tenure.
It has done an mental issues. It was during her period ronment way back in the s. He felt that most people did not the Indian Board for Wildlife was extremely ac- care for nature and would sell it off for a small tive as she personally chaired all its meetings. This makes it one prize for the best book published on environ- of the largest collections in Asia. Indira Gandhi as PM has conclusions during his work.
Ralph Emerson played a highly significant role in the preserva- spoke of the dangers of commerce to our envi. His writings brought home to the enormous amount of work on taxonomy and world the risks to mankind due to man made ecology.
Alfred Wallace came to the same for over 50 years. Aldo Leopald. Older collections of the Asi. Sierra club. He was our cies. EO Wilson is an entomolo- between and Henry as PM. Its origins were collections based at on nature and mankind. Among those who have made known names in the last century include landmarks. Some of the well- mental thinkers.
Its mandate was to do a policies on wilderness conservation and wildlife systematic survey of fauna in India. She wrote a well- the Indian Museum at Calcutta. The Wildlife Protection Act was formu- ness should be preserved after he lived in the lated during the period when she was PM and wild for a year. Between and Madhav Gadgil is a well- known ecologist in India.
Since His friendship with people in power cause for which he has walked over 20 thou- combined with his deep commitment for con. The Garhwal activities. He founded the Center for Science and Environment which is an active NGO that supports various environ- mental issues.
He has written several articles. SP Dam in a fragile earthquake prone setting is a Godrej received 10 awards for his conservation battle that he continues to wage. His most famous and long drawn battles supported by the Su- preme Court include protecting the Taj Mahal.
He was awarded the Padma Bhushan Hills will always remember his dedication to the in His interests range from broad ecological issues such as develop- ing Community Biodiversity Registers and con- serving sacred groves to studies on the behaviour of mammals. His fight to prevent the construction of the Tehri ness programs. UNIT 2: Natural Resources 2. This phe- nomenal rise in human numbers has. Large stretches of land such as forests. About ten thousand years ago.
The over-intensive use of land food resources. Plants and animals can only sur. Changes in land and resource use: During the last years. Most traditional ing microbes. Interactions between the abiotic However we now realize that all this has led to aspects of nature and specific living organisms several undesirable changes in our environment.
Mankind has been overusing and depleting Many of these living organisms are used as our natural resources. They create great quantities of solid waste. Industrial growth. Others are linked to our food has been found to exhaust the capability of the less directly.
These natural resources include. Recently we began to use fer- and the marine environment all form habitats tilizers and pesticides to further boost the pro- for specialised communities of plants and ani.
Later they began closely linked to each in their own habitat. Pol- lution of air. Natural Resources 17 Chapter2. During the last few decades. The stratosphere is ban centers have become large cities. If its nature is disrupted it affects all man- wood.
The number of scooters. The growth of indus- trial complexes has led to a shift of people from The atmosphere forms a protective shell over their traditional. This has in. It is a complex dynamic sys- animals from pasture lands and timber. It also contains a layer of ozone.
In many cases. The atmosphere is not uniformly warmed sity consume. The mag. Urban centers cannot exist with. Most air pollutants have both global and from forests.
The need for more water. The result is a movement of natural Living creatures cannot survive without air even resources from the wilderness ecosystems and for a span of a few minutes. This leads to air flows and variations out resources such as water from rivers and in climate. The growing ishment of the lives of wilderness dwellers. The lowest layer. Rural agricultural systems are de.
To continue to sup- agricultural sector to the urban user. The resources on about dramatic alterations in land-use patterns which mankind is dependent are provided by and rapid disappearance of valuable natural eco.
Major pollut- nitude of the shift of resources has been increas. The has led to the rapid development of the urban buildup of carbon dioxide which is known as economy. Of these constituents. The lithosphere began as a hot ball of matter which formed the earth about 4. Of the 92 elements in the lithosphere only eight are common constitu- ents of crustal rocks.
Once for our homes. Human activities such as deforestation hicles. The crust of the earth is 6 or 7 kilometers thick and lies under the continents. A major part of the hydrosphere ents for plants.
It provides power for ve- aquifers. Some of this fresh water lies in underground ground sources. Water pollu- asthma and even cancer. About 3. Chemicals from industry and sewage find their tory diseases such as various lung infections. Their minerals are also the raw ma- terial used in various industries. Air pollution leads to acute and chronic respira. Atmospheric move- venience into different biogeographical realms.
The linkages between them are mainly in the form of cycles. The periphery. Within this frame. All four dependent. Within it the air. Within into soil. Biomass fuel wood collected dependent on the integrity of each other. It is therefore essential to understand the inter- stand the nature of any other ecosystem and to relationships of the separate entities soil.
The simplest of these ecosystems to understand is a pond. This becomes rain. Their easily vis. The most sensitive and complex link- these. All living organisms to a landscape or waterscape. This is the relatively thin layer on the earth in hydrosphere and lithosphere are all connected which life can exist. It can be used as a model to under. The biosphere which they form has valley. For instance. Dis- from forests and plantations. The structural features of a the value of preserving intact ecosystems as a pond include its size.
Water evapo- and soil and the living creatures. A major part of natural resources are cessors. To manufacture consumer products. One can also observe lead to the formation of unproductive land. A forest recycles its plant ing India and China. All the aquatic ecosystems are veloping countries.
Traditional agricultural ecosys- much greater as well as their waste of enor- tems that depended on rainfall have been modi- mous quantities of food and other products.
Solar energy is the main driving force today consumed in the technologically advanced of ecological systems.
Our food comes from both natural and agricul- Their per capita consumption of food too is tural ecosystems. During the manu- biosphere facturing process. Energy from fossil fuels is consumed in relatively much greater quantities in developed countries. Observe a nearby pond in different sea. The sun also drives the water cycle. Moreover modern agriculture creates a variety sons and document the seasonal of environmental problems. These include processes rational land-use policy that examines how much such as maintaining oxygen levels in the atmo- land must be made available for different pur.
It is also affected by deg- requires more land than growing crops. For in. Land and water re- countries that are highly dependent on non-veg. They are increasingly pastureland than those where the people are being diverted for short-term economic gains mainly vegetarian.
Scientists today believe that at least 10 short-term gains produced by converting for- percent of land and water bodies of each eco. Thus it is essential to evolve a a variety of services. Natural Resources 21 Chapter2. The most damaging change in landuse is dem- man settlements. Thus radation due to misuse.
Semi-arid land is being irrigated Planning Landuse: Land itself is a major re.
In the long natural wilderness cannot be recreated artifi. Forests provide us with lands and deserts. Natural wetlands of great value are being drained for agriculture and other purposes. These forms of intensive land. They are in fact renew- able lifestyles in human life.
They are linked to natural cycles such as the water cycle. These are minerals that have been formed in the lithosphere over millions of years and con. There are clear indicators of sustain. These non-renewable or animal is reduced by human activities. The need for sustainable lifestyles: The qual. The species are affected by their loss. Thus we need not only to protect year due to loss of their habitat.
The water we use depends on the tion. People have used forests in our coun- through these steps. And each step. Our homes. Scientists estimate species. We use many disposal of the waste products produced at medicines that are based on forest produce. The cotton in the clothes you are wear. Over har. What is however not generally rec. Forests once extended over large tracts of our Think of a resource you use and track it country. Another period of overutilisation and forest deg- radation occurred in the early period following independence as people felt that now that the British had gone they had a right to using our forests in any way we pleased.
Today we have only about small plants and animals are occurring every 12 percent. It also involves made from wood from the forest. As agriculture spread the forests were left in patches which were con- Eg. People who live in or near forests know the value of forest resources first hand because their lives and livelihoods depend directly on these re- Activity 3: Utilisation of resources sources.
Each step in resource use can af. At each step note: The following Natural Resources 23 Chapter2. This led the British to develop scientific forestry in India. They hunted ani- ing. Timber extraction is done in India by the Forest Department. Land bank: In the past when wildlife was plentiful. Local use. Atmospheric regulation: Market use.
Erosion control: Now that populations of most wildlife species have diminished. Orissa and Tripura. Village Forest Committees. In many States non-timber forest fuelwood. Local people will only support greening an area if they can see some eco- nomic benefit from conservation.
This has become a se. Under JFM power or irrigation have submerged forests and schemes. Based on these ex- periences. They closely knit to the forest. Another resolution Some States have stopped grazing completely. An infor- Deforestation: Where civilizations have looked mal arrangement between local communi- after forests by using forest resources cautiously.
Forests also cover the steep embankments of river valleys. This stipulates that at least 25 per cent of Timber extraction. Unfortunately for- managing over In many States homes. If timber is overharvested the ecological func- til The fact that forest degradation and Joint Forest Management deforestation was creating a serious loss of the important functions of the forest began to over.
We have not been able to plant enough 25 per cent of the revenue is used for village trees to support the need for timber and development. Forest Protection Committees from have displaced tribal people whose lives are local community members are formed. The need to include local communities in ride its utilisation as a source of revenue from Forest Management has become a growing timber.
The share for village forest committees Thus there is a constant conflict of interests be- Natural Resources 25 Chapter2. From the initiation of the program.
Dams built for hydroelectric need from forest resources. A large num. JFM has now evolved into a formal agree- ished. India is expected to face critical levels of water cipitation.
Around 20 major cities in India face washing. This than they really need. At the global level 31 countries form rivers and lakes and support in a variety of are already short of water and by there aquatic ecosystems.
Overutilization of water occurs ing countries. More than one billion people world- when these plans are executed. Stud- nately lead to deforestation. These forests where ies indicate that a person needs a minimum of development projects are planned. This will lead to multiple ecosystems are used by a large number of people conflicts between countries over the sharing of for their daily needs such as drinking water.
There gating fields. Today in many areas this requirement on the proportion of young people in develop. Only a fraction of this can be actually Nile and Egypt.
The world depends on a limited are countries that share the waters of 13 quantity of fresh water. Of this. The world amounts of water to fulfill a variety of basic population has passed the 6 billion mark. What needs to be understood is that water withdrawals today are estimated at long-term ecological gains cannot be sacrificed cubic kilometers.
Karnataka and Tamil Nadu over the waters b Water resources of the Krishna. Local conflicts are already spreading to states. Wetlands are intermediate will be 48 countries facing serious water short- forms between terrestrial and aquatic ecosys. All aquatic by water shortages. Most people use more water nificantly during the next few decades.
The UN has estimated that by the year tems and contain species of plants and animals Overutilization and pollution of surface and One of the greatest challenges facing the world groundwater: With the growth of human in this century is the need to rethink the overall population there is an increasing need for larger management of water resources.
This leads to wide have no access to clean water. The water cycle. The total annual fresh- partments. Based needs. However this varies in differ. Public and destroy homes in the Ganges and its tribu- awareness may increasingly put pressures on taries and the Bramhaputra. This has seriously chemical fertilizers and pesticides. Drought prone areas are thus faced with Natural Resources 27 Chapter2.
There are have now begun to affect our climate. This leads to periods luted by factories located on its bank. This when there is a serious scarcity of water to drink. In other irrigation systems. In some many ways in which farmers can use less water regions global warming and the El Nino winds without reducing yields such as the use of drip have created unprecedented storms.
Rivers change their industry to produce only eco-friendly products course during floods and tons of valuable soil is which are already gaining in popularity. Water pollution. Floods have been a serious environmen- agricultural pollution of surface and ground tal hazard for centuries. Nepal Drought: In most arid regions of the world the The Narayani River of Nepal has been pol- rains are unpredictable. Many agriculturists use more a global level caused by increasing air pollution water than necessary to grow crops.
Methods such affected regional hydrological conditions. This blocks rivers lic awareness can begin putting pressures on temporarily but gives way as the pressure farmers to reduce the use of chemicals that are mounts allowing enormous quantities of water injurious to health.
The polluting industry that water from damaging surrounding land. As the forests are degraded. Global climate change: Changes in climate at ing of clothes. They alter river flows. This no income in these bad years. A number of measures need to be taken drought is deforestation.
These include measures such as: It also leads to food short. It is an unpredict. Agriculturists have water table drops and vegetation suffers. Thus during a year when the rains are poor. Irrigated areas increased from 40 million able climatic condition and occurs due to the ha. Large is minimised.
It varies in million ha. The scarcity of agriculture. Dams support 30 to frequency in different parts of our country. Under these schemes. While it is not feasible to prevent the failure of Although dams ensure a year round supply of the monsoon. This charges the under. If water wetlands. Managing a river system is best done by leaving Large dams have had serious impacts on the its course as undisturbed as possible.
They have suf- the drainage of wetlands seriously affects areas fered disproportionately from the negative im- that get flooded when there is high rainfall. In India. Today there are more than Dams and lives. The ancient plants and animals were converted into question is why should the local tribals be underground fossil fuels.
Stone used for building material. Sardar Sarovar Project in India in was manganese and copper are important raw ma- a result of the demands of local people terials for industrial use. Important non-metal threatened with the loss of their livelihoods resources include coal. The luster of gold.
Mining tion of social and economic equity as well as operations generally progress through four the enormous environmental losses. This process is known as mining. While emeralds. Several international agencies and experts have proposed that 50 liters per person per day covers basic human water requirements In India.
Minerals in the lost their homeland. Searching for minerals. Assessing the size. Minerals with special prop- placed thousands of tribal folk. The loss of tradi- tional. It is a ques. Why should the less Minerals and their ores need to be extracted fortunate be made to bear the costs of de. Sariska Tiger Reserve, Rajasthan 4 Exploitation: Extracting the minerals from The Forest Department has leased land for the mines.
The local people In the past, mineral deposits were discovered have fought against the mining lobby, and by prospectors in areas where mineral deposits have filed a Public Interest Litigation in the in the form of veins were exposed on the sur- Supreme Court in Rajendra Singh, sec- face. Today, however, prospecting and explo- retary of TBS, points out that as many as 70 ration is done by teams of geologists, mining mines operate in close proximity to the for- engineers, geophysicists, and geochemists who est.
Mod- ern prospecting methods include the use of so- phisticated instruments like GIS to survey and study the geology of the area. The method of mining has to be determined Large explosions have occured in coal mines, depending on whether the ore or mineral de- killing many miners. More miners have suffered posit is nearer the surface or deep within the from disasters due to the use of explosives in earth. The topography of the region and the metal mines.